BEST EGG INCUBATOR COMPANY IN NAIROBI, KENYA
When incubating any bird egg it is important to control the same factors of temperature, humidity, ventilation, and egg turning.
Temperature is the most critical environmental concern during incubation because the developing embryo can only withstand small fluctuations during the period. Embryo starts developing when the temperature exceeds the Physiological Zero. Physiological zero is the temperature below which embryonic growth is arrested and above which it is reinitiated. The physiological zero for chicken eggs is about 75oF (24oC).
The optimum temperature for chicken egg in the setter (for first 18 days) ranges from 99.50 to 99.75 o Fand in the hatcher (last 3 days) is 98.50 F.
Incubation humidity determines the rate of moisture loss from eggs during incubation. In general, the humidity is recorded as relative humidity by comparing the temperatures recorded by wet-bulb and dry-bulb thermometers. Recommended incubation relative humidity for the first 18 days ranging between 55 and 60% (in setter) and for the last 3 days ranging between 65 and 75%. Frequently there is confusion as to how the measurement of humidity is expressed. Most persons in the incubator industry refer to the level of humidity in terms of degrees F., (wet-bulb) rather than percent relative humidity. The two terms are inter convertible and actual humidity depends upon the temperature (F.) as measured with a dry-bulb thermometer. Conversion between the two humidity measurements can be made using a psychometric table.Rarely is the humidity too high in properly ventilated still-air incubators. The water pan area should be equivalent to one-half the floor surface area or more. Increased ventilation during the last few days of incubation and hatching may necessitate the addition of another pan of water or a wet sponge. Humidity is maintained by increasing the exposed water surface area.
Ventilation is very important during the incubation process. While the embryo is developing, oxygen enters the egg through the shell and carbon dioxide escapes in the same manner. As the chicks hatch, they require an increased supply of fresh oxygen. As embryos grow, the air vent openings are gradually opened to satisfy increased embryonic oxygen demand. Care must be taken to maintain humidity during the hatching period. Unobstructed ventilation holes, both above and below the eggs, are essential for proper air exchange.
4. Turning of eggs
Eggs must be turned at least 4-6 times daily during the incubation period. Do not turn eggs during the last 3 days before hatching. The embryos are moving into hatching position and need no turning. Keep the incubator closed during hatching to maintain proper temperature and humidity. The air vents should be almost fully open during the latter stages of hatching.In a still-air incubator, where the eggs are turned by hand, it may be helpful to place an “X” on one side of each egg and an “O” on the other side, using a pencil. This serves as an aide to determine whether all eggs are turned. When turning, be sure your hands are free of all greasy or dusty substances. Eggs soiled with oils suffer from reduced hatch ability. Take extra precautions when turning eggs during the first week of incubation. The developing embryos have delicate blood vessels that rupture easily when severely jarred or shaken, thus killing the embryo.
5. Position of eggs
The eggs are initially set in the incubator with the large end up or horizontally with the large end slightly elevated. This enables the embryo to remain oriented in a proper position for hatching. Never set eggs with the small end upward.